The general principle of all totalisation agreements is that a worker, if equal, must pay taxes and should only be covered by the social security system of the country in which he works. This simple rule is called the territorial rule, that is, the territory in which a person works determines his or her tax debt. All other coverage provisions for totalization agreements are exceptions to this general rule. In recent years, attempts have been made to advance legislative proposals to amend Section 233 to broaden the scope of totalization to the benefit of U.S. interests, while maintaining the program`s traditional focus on actuarial balance and fiscal prudence. However, such legislative proposals have not been highly appreciated and, to date, totalisation partnerships continue to focus on Europe, with a few notable exceptions. Most totalization agreements remove restrictions on the payment of benefits to residents of partner countries. Under current law, U.S. citizens are generally entitled to U.S. Social Security-type benefits, regardless of their country of residence.7 Non-resident aliens who have been absent from the United States for 6 months or more consecutively are generally not entitled to benefits unless they meet a legal exception to this requirement.8 The most common exceptions are the following.
: these agreements eliminate double coverage and double taxes (assessments) for the same work. Agreements generally guarantee that you only pay social security contributions to one country. Self-employed workers in a foreign country are also subject to totalisation agreements. These workers are generally subject to the social security coverage of their place of residence. For example, an independent U.S. citizen living in Sweden is covered by the Swedish social security system. However, there are exceptions to this part of the system.  U.S. totalization agreements with other countries generally have some key elements. Overall, totalization agreements eliminate the dual social security of workers in the United States and the other country where they are from or in which they work. In doing so, one worker is excluded either from the other country`s taxation and social benefits program. There are many rules governing a worker`s social security system.
One rule, the territorial rule, stipulates that a worker is subject to the laws of the country in which he works. This rule is active in all U.S. agreements. According to this rule, a German citizen who works and lives in the United States,